What was the mean and standard error of coral growth(change mg/cm2) at each of the four temperature categories?

Create an excel file with the data in the lab manual for the four treatment temperatures: 26°C, 28°C, 30°C, and 26-30°C fluctuation. Proofread the data you enter to avoid typos. The screenshot on page 185 gives an example of what the data will look like in the spreadsheet.

Calculate the standard deviations, sample sizes, and standard errors for each temperature. Make a graph.

Then, please answer the following questions in a textbox in your spreadsheet next to your data/graph:

  1. What was the mean and standard error of coral growth(change mg/cm2) at each of the four temperature categories? What do the standard errors of these means tell you about the reliability of this data? (A small standard error is an indication that the sample mean is a more accurate reflection of the actual population mean).
  2. Remember that the average water temperature of the coral’s natural habitat was 28 °C. What would happen if climate change were to cause the average water temperature to increase to 30°C?

you are to read chapter 17 from The Molecular Basis of Cancer textbook by Mendelsohn et al, then write a chapter summary on the topic “Tumor Angiogenesis”. 

For this week’s assignment, you are to read chapter 17 from The Molecular Basis of Cancer textbook by Mendelsohn et al, then write a chapter summary on the topic “Tumor Angiogenesis”. It should not be more than two(2) pages long and must be in AMA format.

Writing Clues:

Use appropriate sub-headings to organize your essay and make it easy to read

Use specific and clear examples to highlight your understanding of the concepts

Use the appropriate scientific language and terminology for the topic and your scientific audience/readers/policy makers

CH17 attahced

Which phase of mitosis (not the cell cycle) has the longest duration in the onion root tip cells? How do you know

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-ldPgEfAHI&feature=youtu.be Describe three things you learned from the video (Amoeba sisters) about mitosis and the cell cycle.

3. a-Which phase of mitosis (not the cell cycle) has the longest duration in the onion root tip cells? How do you know

b-Which phase of mitosis has the shortest duration? How do you know?

c-How is cytokinesis different from mitosis?

d-Which phase of the cell cycle is the longest?

e-I have two flasks of human cells growing in culture, one is labeled “A”, the other “B”. A has a mitotic index (MI) of 0.55 and the other, B has a MI 0f 0.15. One of the cultures is composed of normal human cells, the other contains human cancer cells-isolated from a rapidly growing tumor cell line. Which is which? Which is “normal” cells? Which is the cancer cell culture? Explain your answer based on what you have learned from today’s lab and the videos watched.

Management considerations include management goals, management options appropriate for meeting those goals, and how life history information is/was/can be used to determine the appropriate management options.

Research Paper Instructions BIOL 215 Spring 2019 Description of Content: The content of this assignment will include information on life history and management considerations for an animal species. Life history includes information about the animal’s distribution, habitat, reproduction, survival/mortality, diet, life span, etc. (See attached list). Management considerations include management goals, management options appropriate for meeting those goals, and how life history information is/was/can be used to determine the appropriate management options. Length: The content of the paper will not exceed 5 pages in length. This does not include Literature Cited or tables and figures appropriate to the content of the paper. The challenge should not be in finding enough material to fill 5 pages, but rather, it should be in finding a way to efficiently condense the pertinent information into only 5 pages. Format: The paper will be written as if for submission to the Journal of Wildlife Management but without an abstract or key words. Because this paper is not structured like typical JWM papers, the major sections (1st –level headings) should be the introduction (no heading), LIFE HISTORY, MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS, and LITERATURE CITED. Any 2nd- or 3rd-level headings may be used at your discretion and might include examples like Distribution and Habitat, Reproduction, Diet, etc. Instructions for JWM are at http://wildlife.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/TWSJournal-Guidelines-2018.pdf and posted on Canvas. Margins will be 1-inch on all sides, and spacing may either be 1.5 or double-spaced. References: Use as many references as you need, but at least 10 references must be used in this paper. At least six of those references must come from scientific journals (e.g., Journal of Wildlife Management, Wildlife Bulletin, Ecology, Journal of Mammalogy, Journal of Herpetology, Auk, etc.). They are the preferred reference type for this project. Any books cited should be of the type that summarizes and cites information from the scientific literature. Encyclopedias and websites are not appropriate references.

Draw your final tree in the space below. Make sure to include each of the species used & indicate where each trait occurs on the tree. 1. What trait used in this exercise do goldfish, kingsnakes, dogs, & stick insects all have in common?

Name: ___________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Understanding Phylogenies Laboratory Worksheet – BIOL 102 Instructions: Work by yourself or in a group to complete the Understanding Phylogenies in-class lab activity. Take notes & answer the questions on this worksheet. Grading: You will need to download this worksheet and do one of the above: 1) Use Adobe Acrobat or equivalent to edit, and then re-upload the completed sheet to the D2L dropbox or 2) Print out and complete by hand, then take a photo (you can use your phone) of the completed, last page of this worksheet, and submit that photo on D2L (15 pts). You will also need to answer quiz questions on D2L about content and topics covered in this lab (10 pts). Both are due by Friday as usual. 1. Go to the NOVA LABS Evolution Lab game. It can be found here: https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/labs/lab/evolution/ 2. Click “Play Game” & login. You can login with Facebook, your Google account, by creating a PBS sign in, or via a Guest Pass. The Guest Pass might be easiest, but it is up to you. 3. After logging in, you should see The Evolution Lab page. Towards the bottom right you’ll see “Mission 1 Training Trees.” This is our activity for the day. Click “Play.” 4. Watch the short, 2 – 3 minute video introducing the activity, located in the upper left corner of your screen. You can turn on Closed Captioning for the video by clicking the CC option in the video window. Then answer the following questions:  An evolutionary phylogenetic tree is a hypothesis (i.e., a testable idea in science) the depicts or describes: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________.  What do “split points,” also called nodes, in a phylogenetic tree represent? : ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Training Tree 1: Red, green, & gecko.  Click “Play.” Follow the instructions on the screen to build your first phylogenetic tree.  Remember: learn about each species you’re working with by clicking the magnifying glass. Magnifying glasses will pop up next to each of your species listed along the bottom (in this case, a gecko & a palm tree). Click these to learn about each species.  Pay close attention to the traits listed at the top of each species’ profile.  Not sure what a trait is? Ask us! Or ask Google.  Once you’ve correctly built your tree, answer the question on the screen & on the next page.  After answering the question on the screen, click “Next” to move on to the second tree. 6. Training Tree 2: Familiar faces. • Click “Play.” Follow the same steps as you did in the first tree activity. • Draw your final tree, including both species & traits, in the space provided on the next page. • Answer the question on the screen & on the next page. 7. Training Tree 3: Tree of life: Vegetarian edition. • Click “Play.” Follow the same steps as you did in the first tree activity. • Answer the question on the screen & on the next page. 8. Take a picture of the next page and submit it on D2L for 15 pts. Don’t forget to complete the associated quiz questions, also by Friday at 11:59 pm (remaining 10 pts). Name: ___________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________ Understanding Phylogenies Laboratory Worksheet – BIOL 102 Training Tree 1: Red, green, & gecko. 1. Is an animal or a plant more closely related to a fungus? _________________________ 2. Which trait or traits below do geckos share with palm trees? Write your choice(s) here: ____________ A. Both are heterotrophic. B. Both are photosynthetic autotrophs. C. Both have cells with nuclei. Training Tree 2: Familiar faces. Draw your final tree in the space below. Make sure to include each of the species used & indicate where each trait occurs on the tree. 1. What trait used in this exercise do goldfish, kingsnakes, dogs, & stick insects all have in common? _________________________________ 2. Which of the organisms used in this tree is not a vertebrate? ________________________ Training Tree 3: Tree of Life: Vegetarian edition. 1. Is a banana more closely related to a lemon or an onion? _________________________ 2. Bananas & onions form a group to which the closest living relative(s) are/is: ____________ A. The radish & the lemon B. The seaweed *** IMPORTANT: Take a clear picture of this page & submit it to the appropriate assignment on D2L.

Most genetic diseases occur when two faulty genes, which are usually recessive, come together. This means that for a person to have it, both parents must be carriers. Most of us carry a gene for some condition that we will probably never manifest.

The sickle cell trait is found in a recessive allele of the hemoglobin gene. 3. In areas where the malaria parasite is present, both individuals who are homozygous with respect to the sickle cell allele (who will suffer from sickle cell anemia) and individuals who are homozygous with respect to the normal hemoglobin allele (who may contract malaria) have a selective disadvantage. Individuals who are heterozygous for the sickle cell allele have a selective advantage because they are protected from malaria and do not suffer from anemia. 4. Dr. Allison predicted that protection against malaria is correlated with sickle cells. After taking samples, she found that the children with the sickle cell allele had a lower parasite count , as if they were partially protected against malaria 5. As researched, the populations with the highest rate of sickle cell disease is in the areas where malaria is more prone, I think that sickle cell disease could be an evolutionary response that would develop a certain niche of the population, as a defense against malaria. As technological advances develop many alternatives to avoid and perhaps eradicate malaria, I think that people in these areas will evolve by modifying their receptive genes, which were what protected them from malaria, and little by little by evolution the gene that carries this mutation would be eliminated. 6. Inbreeding is defined as “crossing between individuals of a genetically isolated race, community, or population” is technically characterized as the homozygous condition of genes at a particular chromosomal site (locus). Inbreeding causes a deleterious effect on populations of living organisms that present it. Most genetic diseases occur when two faulty genes, which are usually recessive, come together. This means that for a person to have it, both parents must be carriers. Most of us carry a gene for some condition that we will probably never manifest. But if we have a child with a person who also carries that gene, there is a high chance that they will develop a disease that could even lead to death. the effects of inbreeding on the population would consequently be more defective genes and little genetic diversity. 7. The effect that inbreeding would have on the sickle allele would certainly be to increase it. Since it is in a recessive allele, it would not normally have much of a chance of being inherited even more if it is in a heterozygous allele. As a consequence of inbreeding, recessive homologous alleles would be inherited, increasing the reproduction and inheritance of defective genes.

Given that the recessive hemoglobin s gene is passed down through familial lines, the offspring of inbreeding greatly increases the likelihood of sickle cell disease increasing in overall presence.

Student Ada Discussion 1. Sickle cell disease is a disorder that affects red blood cells. Sickle cell disease gets its name because it causes some red blood cells to be formed into a sickle or crescent shape. The red blood cells that are affected cannot properly carry oxygen throughout the bloodstream, therefore causing individuals to not have enough healthy working red blood cells. Not having enough red blood cells (anemia) can cause fatigue in mild situations, but as red blood counts decrease, symptoms can worsen severely. Other symptoms of sickle cell disease include pain, fever, swelling, and yellowing of skin (Mayo Clinic, 2020). 2. The sickle cell allele is recessive and is a mutated variant of the hemoglobin gene (Seladi -Schulman, 2019). 3. Sickle cell disease is much more prominent in areas that malaria is common. Meanwhile, in areas where malaria is rare, sickle cell disease occurs infrequently (Krogh, 2014). 4. Dr. Tony Allison discovered the link between sickle cell disease and malaria. Prior to Dr. Allison’s work, biologists could not understand how sickle cell disease had not been eliminated from the gene pool via natural selection. Dr. Allison discovered that while sickle cell disease is brought on by two copies of a mutated recessive gene, if an individual has just one copy of this recessive gene, they are protected against contracting malaria (Wadman, 2011). 5. As medical and technological possibilities increase, the contraction of malaria will likely decrease in the future. As this occurs, the recessive gene associated with both malaria immunity and sickle cell disease will begin to lose its evolutionary advantage. This will likely lead to the overall reduction of individuals carrying this gene variant. 6. Inbreeding occurs when animals reproduce with other animals that are closely related to them. While inbreeding does not guarantee future health issues for offspring, it dramatically increases their probability. When reproduction occurs with animals that are not related, the odds of offspr ing getting two copies of recessive genes is relatively small. Inbreeding, however, drastically increases the chances of parents having similar genetic makeup and, therefore, matching copies of recessive genes. Many recessive genes carry abnormalities that can result in health issues, which causes children of inbreeding to have higher rates of health problems and birth defects (Krogh, 2014). 7. Inbreeding would likely increase the prevalence of the sickle cell allele. Given that the recessive hemoglobin s gene is passed down through familial lines, the offspring of inbreeding greatly increases the likelihood of sickle cell disease increasing in overall presence. Student Sara Discussion 1. Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that alters the shape of red blood cells (RBC). It decreases the ability of these cells to transport oxygen and can also cause acute episodes of pain, called sickle cell crises. The body also destroys sickle cells, and the loss of red blood cells causes anemia. This disease changes the shape of red blood cells. The cells are supposed to be disk-shaped, but this changes them to a crescent or sickle shape. Sickle cells are not flexible and cannot easily change shape. Many of them are broken by moving through your blood vessels. Sickle cells usually only last 10 to 20 days, instead of 90 to 120 days. Some symptoms are pain and swelling in the hands and feet, fever, jaundice, anemia, chest pain or episodic pain in the joints, abdomen or back, shortness of breath, fatigue, abdominal inflammation, unusual or prolonged headache, sudden weakness or loss of sensation, Priapism (prolonged erection), and Sudden changes in vision.

As advancements in technology make it easier for humans to avoid contracting malaria, what do you expect will happen to the sickle cell allele?

Instructions

In preparation for this discussion, please review the information that you have learned in the textbook essay, “The Price of Inbreeding” (pp. 308-309), address the following (~600 words) site your sources:

  • What is sickle cell disease?
  • Is the sickle cell allele dominant or recessive?
  • What was different about the environments where sickle cell disease was prevalent and where it was scarce?
  • What correlation did Dr. Tony Allison find between sickle cell disease and malaria?
  • As advancements in technology make it easier for humans to avoid contracting malaria, what do you expect will happen to the sickle cell allele?
  • Define inbreeding and explain the effects it can have on a population.
  • What effect would inbreeding have on the prevalence of the sickle cell allele?

Respond with 5-7 sentences to two of your fellow classmates and post your comments and reactions as appropriate. When posting or responding to a post, keep your answers relevant to the particular discussion string.

Summarize the article in your own words without plagiarizing. Your summary should only be two pages in length so it is important that you can summarize the article in that length.

1. Read the definition of plagiarism in the course catalog.

2. Read the article

3. Summarize the article in your own words without plagiarizing. Your summary should only be two pages in length so it is important that you can summarize the article in that length. If the article is too long to summarize in two pages (just a small paragraph more is ok), you should find an article that you can summarize briefly.

4. Because this is understanding plagiarism, DO NOT use quotes from the article to summarize it. You need to be able to do this without quoting the author(s).

5. Make sure to reference your article properly. Any accepted method of citation is fine, but make sure you include the reference or you will be docked points.

Article: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/heart-d…

Grading rubric:

1. You can summarize the article without plagiarism.

2. Reference of your source.

3. You accurately summarize the information in the article—it is also not good if you cannot understand the article enough to describe it to others.

How should we, as a society, reasonable apply these or make these available? Are there situations where these are not to be used versus situations where withholding these would be unjust?

Question: As we have now covered at different points in the class, there are multiple sources of artificial gametes. This includes germline stem cells, such as spermatagonial stems cells in male testes, oogonial stem cells in the ovaries of women, and both male and female gametes generated from pluripotent stem cells, such as iPSCs. In addition, recent work has demonstrated the feasibility, in principle, of an artificial womb.

(Readinghttps://undark.org/2017/09/29/artificial-womb-ecto…)

The article presented above discusses the range of ethical issues surrounding the use of the artificial womb, and to a lesser extent, combining this with artificial gametes. Thinking through the combination of 1) the generation of artificial gametes; 2) the ability to genome edit these gametes; and 3) the capability of developing these into human beings in an environment completely outside of the body, careful consideration must be made regarding the possible trajectory and the consequences of these advances.

Using the information you have gained in other sections of this course as well as in the article above, describe some of the potential benefits of these advanced technologies, as well as potential negative consequences. How should we, as a society, reasonable apply these or make these available? Are there situations where these are not to be used versus situations where withholding these would be unjust? Do some of the ethical arguments presented in the article regarding the artificial womb hold in reference to artificial gametes as well?