explain how several psychological studies use WEIRDos as their study subjects and how that results in a lack of sampling and external validity.

have to respond to two of my peer discussions how you like there post and agree with them no more than 100 words for each and also i attached the article

1a. In the review of Henrich’s and Heine’s WEIRD article, the authors make numerous points against the use of WEIRDos in psychological research. They explain how several psychological studies use WEIRDos as their study subjects and how that results in a lack of sampling and external validity. WEIRDos refers to “people from Western, educated, idustrialized, rich, and democratic cultures(SCIENCE).” These types of candidates make up a large sum of the candidates used by psychologists in their studies. As the article points out, Jeffrey Arnett of Clark University analyzed all empirical papers published in “six top tier psychology journals between 2003 and 2007,” and found out that 68% of the study subjects were provided by the US. Along with that, 27% of study subjects were provided by the UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe. Obviously the authors are pointing out a major flaw in all these psychological researches, which is the lack of sampling. Subjects from specific areas of the world are used as a representation of the whole world, and that’s all because of the inability and lack of effort to obtain study subjects at random from across the globe. In psychological research, a lack of sampling can lead to skewed and inaccurate data and results which in return leads to the inability to translate the results of an experiment into other conditions. This is referred to as low external validity.  Take the Muller-lyer Illusion experiment for example. The results of the experiment stated that “people in industrialized societies often think line A is shorter than line B, but that illusion is weaker or absent in some small-scake societies, whose members perceive the lines as equally long (SCIENCE).” The illusion tricks adults and children in industrialized societies, but has little to no effect on the same subjects in small-scale societies. If a psychological experiment was conducted using the Muller-lyer Illusion, the results of the experiment would be an inaccurate assessment of the human population if the sample subjects were all WEIRDos. This would result in low external validity of the experiment as well, since the outcome of the study would not be applied to other settings. As Henrich states in the article, “we will never figure out human nature by studying American undergrads.” Suggestions are given in the article by Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan to prevent such issues in psychological studies. One suggestion is to “build links to diverse subject pools (SCIENCE).” This would provide a decent representaive groups in studies, which can result in better conclusions that can be generalized to other situations.

1b.The article “A WEIRD View of Human Nature Skews Psychologists’ Studies” talks about a research study that assesses human behavior, but does not use a diverse group of individuals. This study in particular was focusing on figuring out what drives human behavior and used a group of individuals that some believe to be the “most unusual on the planet”.  By only using those who are similar to one another and not using a diverse sample presents a biased picture of human psychology.  (Jones, 2010)

The point the authors were trying to make is that this study is not a true representation of human behavior. The sample used are those from similar backgrounds, Western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic cultures (WEIRD). It should be recognized, that the data collected, analyzed and reported is not representative of the world and only looks at a targeted group with similar backgrounds. Using individuals who are similar to one another greatly influenced the results of this study and therefore should be acknowledged as limitations of this study.

Discuss the role of punishing behaviors that can hurt health vs the role of encouraging healthful behaviors by offering incentives such as lower premiums

Each week, you will be asked to respond to the prompt or prompts in the discussion forum. Your initial post should be 75-150 words in length, and is due on Sunday. By Tuesday, you should respond to two additional posts from your peers.

Prescription Costs

The amount Americans spend on prescription drugs has nearly doubled since the 1990s, meaning the United States spends the most of any high-income nation. Americans didn’t always spend the most. In the 1980s, several countries spent about the same amount per capita as the U.S. The U.S. healthcare spending grew faster in the 1990s. According to the Common Fund (2017), this was partially because several expensive specialty drugs came to market .The drug companies set the price in the United States, unlike in Europe, which has price controls. Americans often pay substantially more for the same drug than people in other countries do.

Recently, lawmakers have questioned the pricing structure of pharmaceuticals, especially when EpiPen reached a price of $300 per dose and top executives in the drug companies were given bonuses. Then CVS, a large pharmacy, announced they were going to purchase AETNA, a large insurer. Headlines such as these have caused the public to question the transparency of the pharmaceutical Industry.

Report on the factors that contribute to the growth in medications

Include the following aspects in the discussion:

  • Find a scholarly article on the costs of medications
  • Explore whether pharmaceuticals should be regulated
  • Discuss the impact of medication costs for the uninsured
  • Consider actions that could be taken to reduce medication costs

Part 2

Each week, you will be asked to respond to the prompt or prompts in the discussion forum. Your initial post should be 75-150 words in length, and is due on Sunday. By Tuesday, you should respond to two additional posts from your peers.

Copays and deductibles

When I complete my yearly health benefit enrollment I am asked if I consume nicotine. If I have been “nicotine free” for 12 months I receive lower costs for my health insurance. This is similar to so-called “sin” taxes. The states and federal government levy taxes as a disincentive for consumers to engage in those activities deemed a health risk: tobacco products, alcohol, junk food, sugary drinks. Other countries, such as Australia have taken this a step further with MDs beginning to refuse to do elective surgeries for those illnesses related to these risky behaviors. A patient that needs, for instance, a femoral popliteal bypass (clogged artery in the leg) as a result of smoking, and for whom it was not an emergency, might be refused the surgery until they stop smoking.

Consider this scenario: You are the manager of a small business. One of your responsibilities is to oversee the health care plan for 10 employees. In examining last year’s costs you note that the smokers in the group averaged 20% higher health care related costs than the nonsmokers. However, the employee diagnosed with cancer had higher costs than the other nine together. You must make a change to break even. Your options are:

  1. Raise weekly fees, deductibles, and copays for all 10 employees
  2. Raise weekly fees, deductibles, and copays for just the smokers and cancer patient (who never smoked)
  3. Raise weekly fees, deductibles, and copays for the smokers but not the cancer patient
  4. Lower the quality of the plan for all employees to maintain the same costs
  5. Raise premiums for all but offer lower deductibles and co-pays for nonsmokers and those who quit smoking

Customize your health care plan costs for your employees

Include the following aspects in the discussion:

  • Describe your thought process as you work through each option
  • Did  what is moral or ethical play a role in your decision
  • Discuss the role of punishing behaviors that can hurt health vs the role of encouraging healthful behaviors by offering incentives such as lower premiums

In this Discussion, you will reflect on a national healthcare issue and examine how competing needs may impact the development of polices to address that issue.

Organizational Policies and Practices to Support Healthcare Issues

Quite often, nurse leaders are faced with ethical dilemmas, such as those associated with choices between competing needs and limited resources. Resources are finite, and competition for those resources occurs daily in all organizations.

For example, the use of 12-hour shifts has been a strategy to retain nurses. However, evidence suggests that as nurses work more hours in a shift, they commit more errors. How do effective leaders find a balance between the needs of the organization and the needs of ensuring quality, effective, and safe patient care?

In this Discussion, you will reflect on a national healthcare issue and examine how competing needs may impact the development of polices to address that issue.

To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and think about the national healthcare issue/stressor you previously selected for study in Module 1.
  • Reflect on the competing needs in healthcare delivery as they pertain to the national healthcare issue/stressor you previously examined.

******The stressor I used for discussion 1 was accesses to health care. My previous discussion is attached to show ******

By Day 3 of Week 3

Post an explanation of how competing needs, such as the needs of the workforce, resources, and patients, may impact the development of policy. Then, describe any specific competing needs that may impact the national healthcare issue/stressor you selected. What are the impacts, and how might policy address these competing needs? Be specific and provide examples.

I have to respond to my peers discussions Agreeing with there responses power points are attached responses do not have to be long. 100 words for each response.

I have to respond to my peers discussions Agreeing with there responses power points are attached responses do not have to be long. 100 words for each response.

Discussion 1a

All goals that the ACA work towards, why it was created, holds very high standards with good reason since it involves patient care.  But what I feel holds the most impact on hospitals are improving quality of care.  I believe once you provide quality care from the start with a patient, it can lead to decrease in admissions and complications which can provide an advantage towards an increase in patients as well as obtaining a better “payment structure that reimburses hospitals based on the quality of care provided.”  This payment structure holds “hospitals accountable in case of any events taken place in their facilities as well as requiring a more strict quality standard.”  And by consistently following quality standards, hospitals are likely to receive incentives and rewards, which will help their revenue and bottom line.  “Although the ACA expands affordable coverage options for millions of Americans, the Congressional Budget Office estimates that 31 million U.S. residents will remain uninsured by 2024.”  This information may seem as though the ACA’s goals are not being reached, but I’m sure if by 2024 you look at the numbers from 10 year prior, you will see an increase healthcare access as well as coverage cost through the different insurance options, private or through the market place.

1b

I believe uncompensated care costs, such as the Disproportional Share Hospital (DSH) payment reduction in the Affordable Care Act, will have the greatest impact on hospitals.  The DSH payments provide hospitals with payment for uninsured patients.  As of 2014 this payment will be decreased by 75%, which will significantly hurt hospitals because there is no guarantee patients that are uninsured will enroll in Medicaid or Medicare or purchase another type of insurance.  41% of government payments for uncompensated care come from these DSH programs.  If a significant amount of people do not enroll in an insurance exchange program but seek medical treatment in a hospital, that were once dependent on DSH reimbursement, the hospital will face financial shortfalls. As mentioned in the PowerPoint “Impact on Hospitals”, DSH payments have been active in maintaining a strong bottom line for hospitals, especially those that treat a significant portion of uninsured patients.  Hospitals that are impacted by payment reduction will have a difficult time with their yearly projections as well, since there will be no guarantee of how many people will be uninsured and in turn how much the hospitals will be compensated for uninsured patients Cut to Medicare Reimbursement is another part of the Affordable Care Act that I believe will have great impact on hospitals and providers.  As mentioned in the “Impact on Hospitals” PowerPoint, Medicare will account for a great portion of hospital reimbursement in large part due to the aging baby boomer population that is expected. The combination of the expected baby boomer population that will start to use Medicare, as well as the DSH payment reduction, will have hospitals and providers facing dire financial situations.

2a “The jury found, by a vote of 10 to 2, that HHC’s security measures were reasonable”. I do not believe that the security measures were reasonable. I think they were inappropriate, unprofessional, and unsafe. “As a practical matter, the concern with security had to be balanced against the need for access and movement of patients, visitors and hospital staff. One noteworthy security problem was the employees’ habit of taping or jamming stairwell doors open to permit easy access between floors, since the elevators were slow. Employees persisted in this habit despite constant instructions to cease. Security personnel were placed on notice of the problem and were directed to constantly look out for it, rectify it if possible and if not, to note the need for repair in an incident report to maintenance and in their memo books. Hospital policy as to intruders required employees to notify security of any sighting of unauthorized persons. Security personnel would question such persons, check out their explanations if necessary, and, in their discretion, could arrest them, escort them out of the building, escort them to the proper treatment area or take other appropriate action”. Security knew they had to look out for the locks on the doors and doors being jammed, they failed to do so in this case. They failed to keep employees safe. “The security officer was unaware of Smith’s recent arrest at the hospital and took him to an emergency services walk-in clinic. Testimony by the then director of security for Bellevue, as well as by an attending psychiatrist at Bellevue, indicated that at this point there should have been some concern about how Smith got to the 21st floor, about keeping Smith out of the hospital, and that perhaps a description of him should have been circulated to some extent among hospital staff”. “While witnesses for HHC stated that a description of Smith was not circulated to all hospital personnel after his arrest for the January 1, 1989, they also stated that such a procedure would be “unwarranted”, since Smith was a patient and would have to he permitted on premises for treatment despite the fact of his arrest. The witnesses conceded that such security measure might have been appropriate for the 16th and 17th floors”. I do not believe this would have been unwarranted, I think this would have been totally appropriate under his condition and circumstances. I believe that everyone should have been aware of Mr. Smith’s recent arrest and that his information should have most certainly been shared throughout the hospital, specifically with the emergency room staff. Knowing that Mr. Smith got himself to the 21st floor should have placed enough concern to place him on a one-to-one watch. Although it was proven in court that the security of the hospital met its standards, I strongly believe they did not meet their standards by not spreading concern about Mr. Smith, not checking the doors, and not questioning how he got to the 21st floor. I think that hospitals need to amp up their security system and policies. Although it is stated that it does not have to be flawless I think it should be somewhat close to it. I think it is super important to protect hospital employees who come in everyday to provide exceptional care to patients who are ill and risk their lives coming into work. I believe that security could have done a better job at preventing this incident from happening. The hospital could have prevented this incident from happening if they had a better security system along with better protocols. If they would have spread concern about Mr. Smith more employees would have been aware and the proper action could have taken place. I truly believe Mr. Smith could have been prevented from getting onto the fourth floor where Dr. Hinnant was sexually assaulted and murdered if security would have checked on the doors and locks.

2b

After reading Document Number “A” Eric A. Johnson, Individually and as Administrator of the Estate of Kathryn Hinnant Johnson, Deceased, Appellant, v NYCHHC, Respondent, et al., Defendants, I agree with the dissenting opinion of J Rosenberg.  I disagree with the jury’s verdict and the trial judges decision in deferring with this verdict.  The law does not require that the hospital act as an insurer and that its security system is allowed to be flawed.   The jury came to a conclusion in a vote of 10 to 2, that HHC’s security measures were reasonable.  But Steven Smith still sexually assaulted and murdered Dr. Hinnant and I feel that the security system was negligent if something as horrific as that can happen under their supervision.     The record states that the jury found the defendant had set up a reasonable security plan under the circumstances and implemented that plan to the best of their abilities. And in doing so, it fulfilled its legal obligation to plaintiff’s decedent. The defendant had employeed 65 to 70 security personnel and they tried their hardest to keep the enormous facility secure.  But there were kinks in their system.  There was a lot of traffic from the shelter to the hospital and from floor to floor. Security had made the mistake of taping these access doors and stairwells open or jamming it so that the foot traffic can easily maneuver from building to building, floor to floor. This would be the beginning of the demise for poor Dr. Hinnant.  The entire plant was 1 million acres and the new building, where the Dr. Hinnant was attacked while working, each floor in the 22 floor building covered approximately an acre.  There was also a tunnel that connected the basement to the basement of the homeless shelter. More security should have been stationed at the entryway between the building and the shelter. It is an extremely large facility and I feel it was understaffed and security was a bit too lax for an enormous plant.     But I also do not feel that the security system is completely at fault.  I understand that the security department had a list of other patients who seemed to be more of a threat and that Smith didn’t seem to have any credible evidence of violence towards other, but he did sneak around and was suicidal. His mental state should have been taken into consideration and had him added to the list. After learning about Smith and how unfortunately they released him each time he came into the hospital, I feel like there were poor decision making or a lack of communication between physicians regarding his mental status. The fact that he was posing as a doctor and trespassing proves his mental state was not well and his drug use would also play a sadistic role in his actions.It is scary to think that just anyone can roam the halls and enter restricted areas.  Smith claimed he ate in the doctor’s lounge and observed surgeries. How could security and other staff members not take notice to this.    I feel that the hopsital could have prevented such an awful occurrence by increasing security staff to properly cover the million acre facility.  With this increase in staff the stairwells between the hospital and shelter would have been manned more properly and there would have been less of a risk of a deranged person sneaking in.  I also feel that if the physicians communicated more about the many instances that Smith came into the hospital over approximately a 3 week period, they would have seen that he was in greater need of help and would have maybe shown that he posed a threat and would have been put on the security’s list.  Even the security director said at the trial that considering Smith’s history they should have had him on a list.  In conclusion, I agree with Rosenberg that they should have set aside the verdict and ordered a new trial.  It is quite unfortunate that more means for security standards were not set in place for such a large facility.  It is also terrible to think that the physicians whom saw Smith over the 3 week period of multiple visits didn’t think to add him to the security list as a risk.  In doing so, it could have saved Dr. Hinnant’s life and the life of her unborn child.

3a

With every new regulation that comes at health care professionals, they must fully understand the new rules and how it changes current procedures, train their staff, obtain approval for revised operating policies and systems, and establish methods for compliance documentation (Government Regulation, 19). The more regulations federal, state, and local governments put in place the more paperwork to be filled out by health care professionals. It could become difficult for doctors and nurses to provide the highest quality of care when they have to spend hours filling out regulatory paperwork. Paperwork is not only time consuming for the staff, but patients as well. I’m sure we all hate having to fill out a few pages of forms when we go to a doctor’s office, now imagine the doctors/nurses having to fill out multiple different forms and some with 60+ questions every time a procedure happens.  Added government regulation also imposes unfunded costs on hospitals. The costs associated with health services regulation lead to more deaths than lack of health insurance does.

Reference

(PowerPoint: “Government Regulation”)

3b

The consequences of federal, state and local regulation of health care services is paperwork. “As the number of regulations increases, the amount of paperwork also increases” (slide 11). “A medicare patient arriving at the emergency department is required to review and sign eight different forms- just for medicare alone. Each time a physician orders a test or a procedure, the physician documents the order in the patient’s record. But the government requires additional documentation to prove the necessity for the test or procedure. Although the physician made a clinical judgement, the decision-making process- which results in the medical order- must be documented using an established diagnosis assignment process mandated by the government” (slide 13). “Hospital staff must complete a 30-item Medicare Secondary Payer questionnaire every time a Medicare patient comes to the hospital-whether for inpatient or outpatient care” (slide 14). “According to the General Accounting Office, OASIS requires 40 additional minutes of a nurse’s time to complete the initial assessment. Additional staff time is required for supervisory review and data entry” (slide 15). The consequences of federal, state, and local regulation of healthcare services prolong the patient care process. Not only does this reduce patient care but it reduces patient satisfaction. Patients get frustrated, they do not want to spend more than half of their hospital visit doing paperwork, they want to be treated for their issues. Staff members feel the same I am sure, they want to be able to treat their patients as quickly as possible and not spend most of their time doing paperwork. There is a lot of paperwork that needs to be filled out each and every time and it is time consuming.

you must develop a plan which manages HIM functions through the Healthcare Integration Process. Ultimately, the LiveWell Integrated Health System (LIHS) will need consistent policies written and modification of some procedures.

Assignment:

In this assignment, you will imagine that you are the Director of Health Information Services at LiveWell and that your HIM department is responsible for:

  • Release of Information
  • Electronic Document Management
  • Coding
  • Transcription
  • HIPAA Privacy

The scenario explains that several clinics have merged at LiveWell under the same corporate entity and that, as a part of your responsibilities, you must develop a plan which manages HIM functions through the Healthcare Integration Process. Ultimately, the LiveWell Integrated Health System (LIHS) will need consistent policies written and modification of some procedures.

For this assignment, you will need to download the complete instructions below:

  • Assignment Instructions: Module 10 Assignment – Instructions
  • If you not open the information above, the copy & paste the link below to a web browser.

https://content.learntoday.info/Learn/HIM3202_Summer_17/Media/HIM3202-Mod_10-Assignment_Instructions.pdf

Submit your completed assignment to the drop box below. Please check the Course Calendar for specific due dates.

Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document.

Identify the audience for your training program and provide a brief outline of the topics it will address. Include a minimum of three to five learning outcomes that are targeted for your identified audience.

Complete a two to three page (excluding title and reference pages) report on the progress you have made to date on your Senior Project.  You must use a minimum of three scholarly sources. Your report, and any citations used, must be in APA style. Your progress report should cover the following:

Topic: Identify the topic that you have selected for your Senior Project and provide a brief explanation for why you have chosen to address this topic.

TOPIC: Address the challenges of employee recruitment and retention of health care professionals. Additional subtopics may include trends in the nursing workforce, shortage of primary care physicians, staff turnover, retention, and staffing patterns.

Organization Specific Rationale: Provide a brief overview of the health care organization that you have selected for your Senior Project including a summary of the challenges and/or opportunities impacting the balance between health care costs, quality, and access to services that the organization is currently facing. The challenges and/or opportunities should directly relate to your rationale for why you have chosen your topic (i.e., training program) to help the organizational leaders manage this challenge/opportunity. Challenges and/or opportunities should be grounded in the research (e.g., web-based resources, electronic articles, or personal interviews). Training: Identify the audience for your training program and provide a brief outline of the topics it will address. Include a minimum of three to five learning outcomes that are targeted for your identified audience. Specifically, what do you want your audience to know and/or be able to do after they have completed training? How does this training program align with the overall challenges and/or opportunities that the organization is facing? Overall, how will the training program benefit the organization?

Describe two processes: the stage-gate process for new product development and the use of Scrum for new product development process.

Option #1: New Product Development Processes

Describe two processes: the stage-gate process for new product development and the use of Scrum for new product development process. Include the following:

  1. Evaluate the pros and cons of each process.
  2. Which process would you recommend for use?
  3. Give the rationale for the process you selected.

Requirements:

  • Write a four- to six-page paper not including the title and reference page which are required.
  • At least four to six scholarly, peer-reviewed references that provide information and guidance for your assignment. The CSU-Global Library (Links to an external site.) is a good place to find these sources.
  • Outside sources include academic and research other than the textbook, course materials, or other information provided as part of the course materials.
  • Follow the formatting outlined in the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA (Links to an external site.).

Note: Appended tables can be used to save space.

The employees at your organization have formed a union, and the bargaining process now begins. Write a case study in which you analyze the situation.

The employees at your organization have formed a union, and the bargaining process now begins. Write a case study in which you analyze the situation. First, begin with background information about the negotiation, and make certain to address the areas below.

  • Identify the state where the organization is located. Is the state a right-to-work state? If yes, explain what this means. If no, explain what this means. Why are the employees deciding to unionize? What are the mandatory bargaining subjects? Other than wages and hours, what are five other terms and conditions of employment? What are permissive bargaining subjects that will be negotiated? List at least five.
  • Second, you need to select members of your bargaining team. You will select four supervisors who were identified in the Unit VI Lesson. Discuss why you selected each supervisor, and compare/contrast their conflict management styles. Each supervisor must have a different conflict style. Explain how each supervisor can contribute to conflict resolution strategies used during negotiation.
  • Third, explain the two collective bargaining strategies, and identify which one you will recommend your team to use. Explain and support your rationale.
  • Finally, what will you propose happens if a labor management agreement is not reached by your team and the employee representatives?

Your case study must be a minimum of three pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. Your case study should present an insightful and thorough analysis with strong arguments and evidence. You must use three academically reliable sources to support your analysis.

Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, and make certain to include in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.

A business case has at least four components, including market components, product components, industry components, and company components. Describe a product you have used by addressing the following elements

Option #2: Selection of a Domestic Organization

A business case has at least four components, including market components, product components, industry components, and company components. Describe a product you have used by addressing the following elements:

  1. the appropriate features of the product
  2. the product’s target price
  3. characteristics of product users
  4. size of the total market
  5. projected product sales revenues in year one of the product’s sales

If you are unable to find information for any element, identify the research needed to determine the information.

Requirements:

  • Write a four- to six-page paper.
  • Include a title and a reference page.
  • At least four to six scholarly, peer-reviewed references that provide information and guidance for your assignment. The CSU-Global Library (Links to an external site.) is a good place to find these sources.
  • Outside sources include academic and research other than the textbook, course materials, or other information provided as part of the course materials.

Follow the formatting outlined in the CSU-Global Guide to Writing and APA (Links to an external site.).

What is the status of the literacy skills in the United States today?

RESEARCH REPORT     Please read before accepting assignment!!

With today’s evolving world of technology, we sometimes forget that basic literacy skills are not what they should be across the nation.

Conduct research regarding the general literacy skills across the United States today. You must use at least three articles in addition to the textbook. At least one of the articles must be from the school Online Library (attached). The articles should be at least three pages in length and no more than 3 years old. You may also use articles from the previous assignments in this course, but your work on this assignment must be original. Report on the following in your review.

  1. What is the status of the literacy skills in the United States today?
  2. How did you feel about learning the current literacy levels in the United States?
  3. What did the articles suggest as a measure to tackle this problem?
  4. Are there literacy programs in your community? Explain.
  5. Do you feel technology has helped or hampered our literacy skills? Explain.
  6. Do you agree with the author’s recommendations? Why, or why not?
  7. How do literacy skills affect your current position ( as a student)?
  8. How do literacy skills affect management’s responsibilities toward training?

Your introduction, discussion of the questions, and summary should be at least three pages in length. The title page, abstract, and references do not count toward meeting the minimum page requirement. Use proper APA formatting for all sources, including articles and the textbook.