what was the sample size for each treatment? Was this sample size appropriate for the design of the experiment?

ACTIVITY 4: IDENTIFYING THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN A PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE

The New York Times article (“A Simple Device to Detect Concussions”), that you read as part of the Preliminary Activities for the lab, was a summary of an actual scientific study that was performed by a team of researchers led by James Eckner. The Eckner team published their study in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, the British Journal of Sports Medicine. In Activity 4, you will read the Eckner article and compare it to the New York Times newspaper summary.

Read: Effect of Sport Related Concussion on Clinically Measured Simple Reaction Time (click here) by Eckner, J.T., Kutcher, J.S., Broglio, S.P., and Richardson, J.K. (2014). British Journal of Sports Medicine 48(2). doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-091579

In the Eckner et al. (2014) study, what was the overall scientific question (scientific method step 2)?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the hypothesis (scientific method step 3)?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the dependent variable?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the independent variable?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the experimental group? What was the control group?

In the Eckner et al. study, what was the sample size for each treatment? Was this sample size appropriate for the design of the experiment? What would have happened if the sample size was smaller (for example, sample size = 5)?

In the Eckner et al. study, what were controlled variables?In the Eckner et al. study, what were confounding variables?

How does the Eckner et al. (2014) article differ from the New York Times article, “A Simple Device to Detect Concussions”.

Which article is easier to read?

Which article has more detail regarding the concussion study?

Which article is a more reliable source of information? Explain.

What is scientific peer-review? Who are the peer reviewers? What are the responsibilities of the peer reviewers?

If a Medical Doctor (M.D.) or a Doctor of Dentistry (D.D.S.) discussed the concussion study with a colleague, which publication would she/he likely rely upon? Why?

Given that BIOL& 160 students are typically studying to become healthcare professionals who will often be the most direct link between physician and patient, how important is it for BIOL& 160 students to be able to recognize levels of reliability in different forms of scientific communication?

In your own words define natural selection and evolution.

Answer the following questions in essay format. See the assignment expectations below for details on how to format your essay. You will be selecting one species from the video below to address questions 4 and 5 (video is approximately 12 minutes in length). You will need to conduct additional research to complete the essay in detail.

1.       In your own words define natural selection and evolution.

2.       What are four key components of natural selection?

3.       What kinds of variable traits might natural selection act upon within a population?Choose one species from the video below (examples include the peacock or North American Elk) to complete the remaining two questions for your Case Assignment:Conboy, R. Evolution – Why Sex? Retrieved March 13, 2018 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AiHTcWejjQ

4.       Sexual selection is a “special case” of natural selection. Define sexual selection (explain the concepts of male competition and female choice in your answer)

5.       How do the unique traits of the animal you have chosen increase its fitness (in reproductive terms)?

Assignment Expectations

Organize this essay assignment using subtitles that summarize the topic from each question above. For example, to answer Question 1, use a descriptive subtitle like the following: Natural Selection and Evolution.

Your essay should be approximately 2-3 pages in length. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to use APA formatting throughout your essay with 1-inch margins, 12-point type and double spacing throughout. Include a title page, introduction, answers to the questions with subtitles and concluding paragraph. Remember to include in-text citations within the body of the essay referencing your resources (i.e. Murray, 2014). Also, be sure to include a reference section at the end of your assignment listing all required readings and any additional resources you used to complete your essay.

To complete your essay for this assignment, select one of the biotechnology/genetic engineering topics below and answer the following questions in essay format:

Biotechnology is a rapidly growing field that uses research tools from biology and chemistry to find solutions to current scientific problems. Some biotechnology professionals look for the genetic basis of disease or factors that affect lifespan. Others focus on solving food shortages, the climate crisis, or criminal investigations.

Case Assignment

To complete your essay for this assignment, select one of the biotechnology/genetic engineering topics below and answer the following questions in essay format:

  • Therapeutic Uses of Stem Cells
  • Animal Cloning
  • Designer Babies
  • DNA and Criminal Forensics
  1. Summarize the technology (How is it done? What is it used for?)
  2. What people or companies are interested in doing research on this topic?
  3. What are they trying to discover or do?
  4. What have they already done with this technology?
  5. Why are they trying to do it/or what is the ultimate goal in the future? Assignment Expectations

Organize this essay assignment using subtitles that summarize the topic from each question above. For example, to answer Question 1, use a descriptive subtitle like the following: Introduction to Animal Cloning.

Your essay should be approximately 1.5-2 pages in length. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to use APA formatting throughout your essay with 1-inch margins, 12-point type and double spacing throughout. Include a title page, introduction, answers to the questions with subtitles and concluding paragraph. Remember to include in-text citations within the body of the essay referencing your resources (i.e. Murray, 2014). Also, be sure to include a reference section at the end of your assignment listing all required readings and any additional resources you used to complete your essay.

Describe the views of Americans concerning the nation’s progress on matters related to race. How do people believe things have changed under the Administration of Donald Trump and how do they view his handling of racial issues?

I need support with this Political Science question so I can learn better.

Read pages 4-16 of the Pew Research Center report, Race in America 2019 (see link below), and write a brief report. The report should contain three separate sections that address all the points in each set of questions. Notice the expected word count for each section (exceeding the word count will not negatively affect your grade, but please try to stay within the range).

1. Describe the views of Americans concerning the nation’s progress on matters related to race. How do people believe things have changed under the Administration of Donald Trump and how do they view his handling of racial issues? (approximately 150-200 words)

2. How is partisanship associated with views about race in the United States? Indicate some ways that Democrats and Republicans differ in their responses to questions about race. (approximately 150-200 words)

3. How do black and white respondents differ in their perceptions about race in the United States? Provide some examples of major differences in perceptions of these two groups. (approximately 150-200 words)

Do you believe our current systems and country given it racial & political climate fosters the opportunity for restorative justice?

I’m studying for my Political Science class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study?

Hello this is a Discussion and a reply. The discussion should be about 500-600 words long and the reply to another student should be around 300-350 words. You have to include the two books I will provide and look for one other source to answer the questions. I will give you to samples of other students and you can so create an idea of how to do it and also the reply is going to be just to one of those students. Let me know if you pick student one or two for the reply. For the first question in the discussion you can use charter schools and people in prison as an example because I myself was a charter school student. And yes I believe that it can change and become restorative justice if we try. The rest you can write from the readings I will provide and from the source and your own thoughts tell me what you will say before doing it right away. I do not need an outline page you do not need to spend time on that. PLEASE use APA format. and be respectful in the reply to the other student. I provided first the discussion assignment second I provided the reply assignment than I told you which chapters to read and included the books in the drop box and at the end I gave you the two students discussions. I think it is clear if not let me know if you have any questions.

DISCUSSION: Where do you see restorative justice in general playing out currently, schools, prison, family? Do you believe our current systems and country given it racial & political climate fosters the opportunity for restorative justice? Identify the dominant and alternative discourses that support the school to prison pipeline. Define restorative practices in your own words (based on your experiences, the restorative video posted, lectures, and readings for this week). How could restorative elements shift the dominant discourse? Describe the distinctions between restorative and retributive systems. Also be sure to reference the resources from this month as well as identify at least one outside restorative reference (website, book, article) to support your response. (min. 500 words)

REPLY: In approximately 300 words respond to another person in your group about their planned circle. What did you learn by reading about their circle? What did you find yourself agreeing with and disagreeing with about their plan? Do you have any other suggestions for them to add to their circle based on the purpose they set.

SOURCES read those to be able to answer the question

Marian Liebman please read chapter 1& 2

Braithwaite please read chapter 1

STUDENT 1

Where do you see restorative justice in general playing out currently, schools, prison, family?

During the recent surge in protest in support of the Black lives matter movement and the movement to end police brutality, I’ve witnessed dedicated global action right down to the members of my community in an attempt to right some of the various the wrongs committed against the black and brown communities all over the world.

I live in La Mesa and attended a protest at the police station this summer in which police employed tear gas on us. People of all races suffered under the effects of the tear gas but the images that resonated with me most were those of white people in severe pain flushing the gas out of their eyes. Some would say they have more to lose than to gain in this process, yet they chose to stand in solidarity with us that day. One of the aims of restorative justice is to encourage offenders to acknowledge the harm they have caused and present them with an opportunity for reparations (Liebmann, 2007). A sense of acknowledgment of harm and intent to right those wrongs was extremely salient to me throughout the crowd that day, and it was a very humbling event to be apart of.

Do you believe our current systems and country given it racial & political climate fosters the opportunity for restorative justice?

Yes, I do. A large section of Americans are demonstrating that they want things to change. Equality for our citizens has become a top priority and is being fought for through political activism. I believe now is the perfect time for a widespread discourse about restorative justice and how it can change the landscape of our prisons and black and brown neighborhoods. The current system is not only ineffective but it has also decimated our black and brown neighborhoods and families. I believe the reason we see so much activism across the board at this time is that people are truly realizing the pervasive and insidious nature of our current system and I believe people are more than open to a new system right now.

Identify the dominant and alternative discourses that support the school to prison pipeline.

The school to prison pipeline, like our justice system, engages highly punitive standards operating under the pretense of curbing escalating levels of violence in schools. But this narrative leaves much to be desired. There’s no detention or counseling for troubled students, or even just students having a bad day. Punishment is automatic (Mualimm- ak, 2014). Schools are being created to look more than prisons than schools, and once students have completed or left the school system, students in underfunded/ disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to find themselves in jail than college. Three out of four African American males experience some form of criminal justice supervision (Wood,2014). The cost of meeting the bottom line for the benefactors who support for-profit prisons means that the majority of our black and brown boys will be institutionalized and used as a source of cheap labor.

Define restorative practices in your own words (based on your experiences, the restorative video posted, lectures, and readings for this week).

Restorative justice practices seek to restore and rebuild victims, offenders, and communities. Restorative practices center around bringing the victim and offender together to experience a shared learning experience about how the crime has affected the victim as well as what antecedents positioned the offender to commit the crime. Restorative practices also focus heavily on providing supplemental resources outside of the meetings to assist both parties in recovery from this event and to help ensure that a repeat of said crime does not take place.

How could restorative elements shift the dominant discourse?

One of the main goals of restorative justice’s to produce empathy and remorse between victim and offender. In our current system, creating those feeling is often an afterthought. Even in cases when it is produced it often has little significance to the outcome of the trial.

Restorative justice seeks to make remorse and empathy meaningful experiences. It seeks to disrupt our current understanding of crime and punishment and interject an alternate position; crime and remorse.

Describe the distinctions between restorative and retributive systems.

In retributive systems, the onus is placed loosely on the correction of the offender and largely on the punishment of the offender. Removal of the offender from society or placing them under a different status during said “correctional” period are key points of this method of addressing crime. In restorative justice techniques, the emphasis is placed on healing and returning to the highest degree possible what the victim has lost as a result of the crime as well providing what was initially was lacking in the offender’s life which lead to the perpetration of the crime. Although oftentimes playing out in the background, punishment is notably absent from the tenants of restorative justice.

Analyze and discuss the material that has been assigned, and address the following statement: “Those countries south of the United States which speak languages derived from Latin, such as Spanish, Portuguese or French have a common heritage and identity and should be included in the phrase ‘Latin America’.

I don’t know how to handle this Political Science question and need guidance.

Before the Western hemisphere was named “America” or “Latin America,” the indigenous empires had their own self-designated names such as Anahuac for what is today known as Central Mexico, and Tawatinsuyu for the Andes region of Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador. An Italian cartographer realized that he was sailing along the coast of a continent and named it after himself, “America,” thus creating the fourth continent known to Europeans.

By the middle of the nineteenth century, citizens of the United States had begun to refer to themselves as “Americans” and los Americanos who spoke Spanish, had begun to refer to themselves as “Latin Americans” (rather than Americans or Spanish Americans) with encouragement from France.

Talk about the significance of names such as “American,” “Spanish American,” “Creoles” and “Latin Americans.” Why choose one identity over another? Which countries are traditionally included in the designation “Latin American”? Why? Which countries are excluded?

Preparation

  • Review the Essay 2, NOTES The Idea of Latin America.docx Mignolo, Chapter 2
  • Read the article by Marshall Eakin “Does Latin America have a common history?” (1.Eakin Latin America Common History, notes.docx) as preparation for writing this essay.
  • Watch the YouTube video “What’s the difference between Latino and Hispanic
  • Prepare and Submit

    Write a well-organized essay with a minimum of 1000 to 1200 words (3 to 4 pages double-spaced) in which you address the following:PROMPT: Analyze and discuss the material that has been assigned, and address the following statement: “Those countries south of the United States which speak languages derived from Latin, such as Spanish, Portuguese or French have a common heritage and identity and should be included in the phrase ‘Latin America.” Discuss if you agree or disagree with the statement.Some issues to consider:

    • Should English speaking countries such as Belize and Jamaica be included in Latin America? What about Dutch speaking countries such as Surinam?
    • Should Puerto Rico be included in Latin America since it is not an independent country?
    • What about Bolivar and Jose Martí’s idea of calling all the countries part of “Nuestro América” instead of dividing the hemisphere between North, South and Central?
    • Some Brazilians do not like to be included in Latin America. Do they have a point? Would “Ibero-America” be a better term?
    • Haiti has traditionally been included in Latin America by some scholars, but excluded by others. What about Quebec?
    • If your family is from Latin America or a Spanish speaking country, to you prefer to refer to yourself as “Latino”? or “Hispanic?” or just American?

Provide a list and brief description of the future (alternate) energy resources currently used in the US and around the world (use pictures when appropriate to better illustrate your explanation)

I’m trying to study for my Engineering course and I need some help to understand this question.

(A) Provide a list and brief description of the future (alternate) energy resources currently used in the US and around the world (use pictures when appropriate to better illustrate your explanation)

(B) Which one the the future (alternate) energy resources do you think is most likely to release the world from its dependence on energy derived from fossil fuels? Support your answer with the most current data available on the Internet or the library (web articles, journal articles, UTRGV library online journal subscriptions, etc.)

(C) Reply* to at least two of your classmate’s post stating your agreement or disagreement for her/his material posted. Your response should be supported with the appropriate justification and/or cited bibliography (I agree or I disagree without an appropriate justification will not be an acceptable reply).

(D) List at least two consulted bibliographic sources (provide a complete bibliographical listing, if using a web source, the website address alone is not enough).

attached will be two peers discussion post that you will need to reply to.

Describe what happens to the chromosomes of a cell during each stage of meiosis (I and II).

Learning Objectives Cell Division

Mitosis

How many chromosomes are present in a human somatic cell?  In a gamete?

What are: chromatin, sister chromatids, centromeres, centrosomes, centrioles, mitotic spindle?

3. Name each phase of mitosis and describe what is happening.

What happens at G1, S, and G2 phases of Interphase in preparation for mitosis?

At what stage of mitosis do the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

What is the role of mitosis in living organisms?

Describe cytokinesis and Plant and Animal cells.

Meiosis

Define the following: homologous chromosomes, autosomes, chiasmata, synapsis, haploid, diploid, tetrad, recombinant chromosomes, n, 2n.

Describe what happens to the chromosomes of a cell during each stage of meiosis (I and II).

When do haploid cells first form during the process of meiosis?

What is a gamete? A zygote? How many chromosomes do they have (n or 2n)? Are they haploid or diploid cells?

Describe two different aspects of meiosis that contribute to genetic variation between individuals.

What are the differences between Mitosis and Meiosis?

For this assignment you will research a specific genetic disorder and create a PowerPoint to explain the disorder by addressing the information outlined below.

You have already completed a basic study about genetics and mutations. For this assignment you will research a specific genetic disorder and create a PowerPoint to explain the disorder by addressing the information outlined below. Potential disorder topics are found in the table. You may also use the link provided below the table to begin your research.

List of possible Genetic Disorders to Research:

  • Achondroplasia (Dwarfism)
  • Albinism
  • Adrenal hyperplasia
  • Autism/ Asperger syndrome
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
  • Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy
  • Familial Dysautonomia
  • Gardner syndrome (intestinal polyposis)
  • Gaucher’s Disease
  • Hemophilia
  • Huntington’s Disease
  • Jacobsen Syndrome
  • Klinefelters Syndrome
  • Klippel-Feil Syndrome
  • Leukodystrophy
  • Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS)
  • Marfan Syndrome
  • Moebius Syndrome
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease
  • Progeria
  • Proteus syndrome
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Rett’s Syndrome
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Spinocerebellar Ataxia
  • Tay-Sach’s Disease
  • Tourette Syndrome
  • Turner Syndrome

Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved March 16, 2018 from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition

Topics you should include in your presentation:

Slide 1Title Slide with Name, Course and Date

Slide 2- IntroductionName and describe your chosen disorder. What happens to the body as a result of this disorder? What part or parts of the body does the disorder generally affect? How many people are generally affected in the US (or worldwide)?

Slides 3-4Describe the symptoms of the disorder. What happens in the body to cause the disease? Is it a mutation? How is it inherited? Is it recessive or dominant or sex-linked? Is it triggered by other events? Find 1-2 images to illustrate the symptoms or cause of the disorder.

Slides 5-6How is the disorder diagnosed? What tests are done? Is genetic counseling an option?

Slide 7How is the disorder treated? Discuss medications, gene therapy, etc. Include an image to support your research.

Slide 8- Application of researchSummarize new findings about your chosen disorder by researching current articles. What new information did you learn about your chosen disorder? Include the resource(s).

Slide 9 – ConclusionSummarize your project findings.

Slide 10—ReferencesPlease provide your sources in APA format.

Describe the type of cell(s) involved with the disease. What is the specific function of this type of cell?

There are many diseases that are caused by the malfunction of specific organelles. Three examples are listed below: Cystic Fibrosis, Pompe Disease and Leigh Syndrome. Select one of the disorders below and complete an essay of approximately 2-3 pages in length, addressing the questions below. A link is provided to introduce you to each disorder. You will need to conduct additional research to fully complete your essay. You should consult a minimum of three quality sources when researching parts I-IV below to complete your essay.

Cystic Fibrosis – One of the causes of the symptoms of cystic fibrosis is a defect in the calcium and chlorine ion channels in the cell membranes, thus producing abnormal amounts of fluid and salts in specific organs.Shannon, S. (2016). The Cellular Mechanism of CS: The Basics. Cystic Fibrosis News Today. Retrieved from https://cysticfibrosisnewstoday.com/2015/03/12/the-cellular-mechanism-of-cf-the-basics/

Pompe Disease – The inability of the lysosome to break down macromolecules like glycogen causes a build-up of those substances within the organelle. This leads to progressive muscle weakness due to the lack of monomers available to the mitochondria for cellular respiration.Pompe Disease.(n.d.) National Organization for Rare Disorders. Retrieved from https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/pompe-disease/

Leigh Syndrome – The inability to effectively produce ATP due to a defective mitochondrial gene for one of the ATPase enzymes. Symptoms start in the central nervous system and progressively worsen.Leigh Syndrome. (n.d.). US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/leigh-syndrome (also a good source for genetic information on the conditions above)

I. Cellular cause of disease

Describe the type of cell(s) involved with the disease. What is the specific function of this type of cell? If an organelle or other cell structure is the problem in the disease, include information about it. Are there more of a specific type of organelle in this type of cell? Why is the cell not performing properly in this type of disorder? Does this disorder affect other parts of the body?

II. Disease- Basic Information

Describe what someone with the disease would notice, and what doctors find when doing an examination. How serious is the disease? What happens if it is not treated? What effect does it have on normal living? Is it inherited? If so, describe the inheritance pattern and the gene responsible. How does the malfunctioning cell cause the symptoms? Usually there is a protein or enzyme that isn’t produced properly. How is this related to the symptoms?

III. Disease Treatment and Research

How is the disease currently being treated? Is it curable, or is the treatment only for the symptoms? What research is currently being conducted to find a cure/treatment? Is there hope for a cure/treatment? Are stem cells or gene therapy used in research? Can these therapies lead to a cure? Why is continued research important?

IV. Summarize your findings.

Assignment Expectations

Organize this essay assignment using subtitles that summarize the topic from each question above. For example, to answer Question 1, use a descriptive subtitle like the following: Cellular Cause of Disease.

Your essay should be approximately 2-3 pages in length. Answer each question under the subtitle using complete sentences that relate back to the question. Be sure to use APA formatting throughout your essay with 1-inch margins, 12-point type and double spacing throughout. Include a title page, introduction, answers to the questions with subtitles and concluding paragraph. Remember to include in-text citations within the body of the essay referencing your resources (i.e. Murray, 2014). Also, be sure to include a reference section at the end of your assignment listing all required readings and any additional resources you used to complete your essay. A helpful guide to writing a quality essay can be found in Trident’s Student Guide to Writing a High-Quality Academic Paper. This guide also provides links to example essays written within APA format.

Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example (Murray, 2014). Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit.