What does Adjustment mean in research results? Interpretation The fifth component asks us to address questions about the meaning of the investigations results for those who participated in the investigation.

In this component, we address 3 key questions: • • • Estimation Inference Adjustment Question 8- Please put in your own words what each of these 3 questions mean as it relates to Results of a study. What does Estimation mean in research results? Question 9- What does inference mean in research results? Question 10- What does Adjustment mean in research results? Interpretation The fifth component asks us to address questions about the meaning of the investigations results for those who participated in the investigation. The 3 questions/issues that can be addressed by interpretation are: • • • Contributory cause of efficacy Harms Subgroups Question 11-What is the difference between contributory cause and efficacy, in your own words? Question 12- Did you discuss Harms in your research proposal? If so, what are they? If not, what could they be? Extrapolation The final component asks what the results of the investigation tell us about individuals not included in the study and for situations not directly addressed by the study. Question 13- Why is the process of extrapolation so important to consider when looking at a Randomized Controlled Trial? When conducting extrapolation, we ask how the investigation applied the results to: • • • People similar to the average participant in the investigation Situations that go beyond the range of the study’s data Populations or settings that differ from those in the investigation Question 14- In your own words, what is the biggest difference between interpretation of results and extrapolation of results?

Explain to me how the 3 above key questions complement one another and your interpretation of what each of them means (do not just give me the text book definition of study hypothesis

Healthcare Research and Design Final Exam Part 1 Methodology Each of the 6 components in the M.A.A.R.I.E. framework can be divided into three specific issues. This has been the focus for the majority of our text book readings, class discussions, project work and your research proposal. The methodology of any research paper (randomized control trial, cohort study, prospective study, etc.) is normally the first thing you encounter, and typically the issues and key questions are: • • • Study hypothesis Study population Sample size and statistical power Question 1- In your own words, what does METHOD, the first component of the framework, define? Question 2- Explain to me how the 3 above key questions complement one another and your interpretation of what each of them means (do not just give me the text book definition of study hypothesis, etc.). Assignment The second component of the framework is assignment, or the selection of study participants for the study and control group(s). The three basic issues and key questions are as follows: • • • Process of assignment Confounding variables Masking Question 3- Explain to me how you dealt with these three issues in your research proposal for this class. What was your process of assignment, and how did you identify it? How did you control for confounding variables? Was masking possible? Answer these questions, and then discuss how despite the simplicity of this component of the framework, how it can effect interpretation of results of a study. Assessment This is the measurement of outcomes or end points in the study group and in the control group. In order to assess the results of an investigation, researchers must define the outcome or end points they intend to measure. The assessment portion of research is considered valid when it fulfills these 3 criteria: • • • Measurement is Appropriate Measurement is Accurate Measurement is Precise Additionally, implementation of measurement or assessment should be: • • Complete Unaffected by the process Question 4- What does it mean to pick a measurement that is not appropriate versus one that is appropriate? Question 5- In your own words, relating to assessment of end points in a research trial, what is the difference between accuracy and precision? Question 6- Why is it so devastating for a study when follow-up of patients is incomplete? Question 7- Define the placebo affect and tell me how that might have outcomes on affecting the “process” Results The fourth component of the framework is where we perform statistical calculations on the raw data collected during the assessment phase.

For this part of the exam, there is a total of 14 questions, with a couple of them having the opportunity to be quite long answers and several of them being shorter answers.

Hello,

I have a final exam that is consisted of two parts for Healthcare Research and Design course. The two parts of the exam will be divided for two study pool questions. Now we will begin with part 1. Next week, I will place another question for part 2.

In order to answer some questions, you may need to refer to 3 previous assignments: 1- Critique of a research study, 2- Literature review (critique of 7 different articles), and 3 – Research proposal. I attached all of them for your reference. You may need to refer to the three previous assignments to answer some questions. Don’t worry, they are not complicated.

Textbook if needed:

Riegelman RK.Studying a study and testing a test:reading evidence-based health research.6th Ed.Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2013.

For this part of the exam, there is a total of 14 questions, with a couple of them having the opportunity to be quite long answers and several of them being shorter answers. Just answer the questions and give enough thoughts.

Please accept and begin working. The questions are attached

How have clinical outcomes and organizational outcomes among various populations of patients been improved as a result of health care IT?

Discussion 1:

“How do EHRs support population health?”

  • What is the role of EHRs in supporting population health?
    • How do they enhance patient engagement/outreach, care coordination/management, and health information exchange?
    • How have information systems saved health care payors and patients on care costs?
    • How have clinical outcomes and organizational outcomes among various populations of patients been improved as a result of health care IT?

    Discussion 2:

  • “Choosing the right health care technology.”
    • Choose one of the following outcomes:
      • 1) promotes access to health care services,
      • 2) promotes health equity,
      • 3) provides care for vulnerable populations, and
      • 4) enhances cost effectiveness.
      • Then, choose one specific health care technology:
        • 1) telehealth,
        • 2) e-health, and
        • 3) m-health. Research its use in health care.
        • Explain how your chosen health care technology improves or facilitates your chosen outcome.
        • Provide an example of how the technology has been used/is being used to improve health care (based on your chosen outcome) and increase the value of health care services offered.
        • Share the facility, and the outcome of using the technology.

        Discussion 3:

      • “A dataset that interests you.”
        • Go to this AHRQ website: https://www.ahrq.gov/data/resources/index.html. Review various data sources that are available.
          • Select one (1) dataset that interests you.
          • Summarize it, including the data it contains, the timeframe collected, locations/settings included, and any findings, patterns, and/or trends thus far.
          • As an administrator, how might you use this data to help inform decisions within your health care organization?
          • How could access to these large datasets help you as a health care administrator? Support your answer.