Given that the recessive hemoglobin s gene is passed down through familial lines, the offspring of inbreeding greatly increases the likelihood of sickle cell disease increasing in overall presence.

Student Ada Discussion 1. Sickle cell disease is a disorder that affects red blood cells. Sickle cell disease gets its name because it causes some red blood cells to be formed into a sickle or crescent shape. The red blood cells that are affected cannot properly carry oxygen throughout the bloodstream, therefore causing individuals to not have enough healthy working red blood cells. Not having enough red blood cells (anemia) can cause fatigue in mild situations, but as red blood counts decrease, symptoms can worsen severely. Other symptoms of sickle cell disease include pain, fever, swelling, and yellowing of skin (Mayo Clinic, 2020). 2. The sickle cell allele is recessive and is a mutated variant of the hemoglobin gene (Seladi -Schulman, 2019). 3. Sickle cell disease is much more prominent in areas that malaria is common. Meanwhile, in areas where malaria is rare, sickle cell disease occurs infrequently (Krogh, 2014). 4. Dr. Tony Allison discovered the link between sickle cell disease and malaria. Prior to Dr. Allison’s work, biologists could not understand how sickle cell disease had not been eliminated from the gene pool via natural selection. Dr. Allison discovered that while sickle cell disease is brought on by two copies of a mutated recessive gene, if an individual has just one copy of this recessive gene, they are protected against contracting malaria (Wadman, 2011). 5. As medical and technological possibilities increase, the contraction of malaria will likely decrease in the future. As this occurs, the recessive gene associated with both malaria immunity and sickle cell disease will begin to lose its evolutionary advantage. This will likely lead to the overall reduction of individuals carrying this gene variant. 6. Inbreeding occurs when animals reproduce with other animals that are closely related to them. While inbreeding does not guarantee future health issues for offspring, it dramatically increases their probability. When reproduction occurs with animals that are not related, the odds of offspr ing getting two copies of recessive genes is relatively small. Inbreeding, however, drastically increases the chances of parents having similar genetic makeup and, therefore, matching copies of recessive genes. Many recessive genes carry abnormalities that can result in health issues, which causes children of inbreeding to have higher rates of health problems and birth defects (Krogh, 2014). 7. Inbreeding would likely increase the prevalence of the sickle cell allele. Given that the recessive hemoglobin s gene is passed down through familial lines, the offspring of inbreeding greatly increases the likelihood of sickle cell disease increasing in overall presence. Student Sara Discussion 1. Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder that alters the shape of red blood cells (RBC). It decreases the ability of these cells to transport oxygen and can also cause acute episodes of pain, called sickle cell crises. The body also destroys sickle cells, and the loss of red blood cells causes anemia. This disease changes the shape of red blood cells. The cells are supposed to be disk-shaped, but this changes them to a crescent or sickle shape. Sickle cells are not flexible and cannot easily change shape. Many of them are broken by moving through your blood vessels. Sickle cells usually only last 10 to 20 days, instead of 90 to 120 days. Some symptoms are pain and swelling in the hands and feet, fever, jaundice, anemia, chest pain or episodic pain in the joints, abdomen or back, shortness of breath, fatigue, abdominal inflammation, unusual or prolonged headache, sudden weakness or loss of sensation, Priapism (prolonged erection), and Sudden changes in vision.